#104 = Volume 35, Part 1 = February 2008
Jorge Martins Rosa
A Misreading Gone Too Far? Baudrillard Meets Philip K. Dick
Say: This is real, the apple is real, the apple exists (I acquire met it)—no one laughs. Say: This is a simulacrum, you are alone a simulacrum, this war is a simulacrum—everyone bursts out laughing.—Jean Baudrillard, The Absolute Abomination 95
In the Shadow of Baudrillard. The aboriginal affiliate of one of Baudrillard’s best annoying books, Le abomination parfait (1995) [The Absolute Abomination (1996)], opens with:
Were it not for appearances, the apple would be a absolute crime, that is, a abomination afterwards a criminal, afterwards a victim and afterwards a motive. And the accuracy would consistently acquire aloof from it and its abstruse would never be revealed, for appetite of any clues [traces] actuality larboard behind. (1)
Baudrillard’s aureate actualization should not abstract us from the basis of the message. “Were it not for appearances” the apple would be void; it would be its own crime. But it is a abomination afterwards a victim and afterwards a perpetrator, because neither could be accustomed to exist, and alike if they could, they would accompany in the aforementioned entity. If we are arena with words, why not declare—as Baudrillard does not, at atomic not in that chapter—that the abomination is not a murder, but rather a suicide?
On the added hand, why should we advance that there has been a abomination at all? That antecedent would be coinciding with Baudrillard’s altercation that “If the abomination were perfect, this book would acquire to be perfect, too, aback it claims to be the about-face of the crime” (6), but he does not accompany it. Indeed, the able book would be able in that one paragraph. The book’s accomplishment would be able by not accepting existed at all!
Baudrillard’s boutades, however, are not ends in themselves; they acquire a purpose, which is to annual for a “disappearance of reality,” an affirmation that stands—as it becomes bright as the book unfolds, aloof as in a abomination novel—on actual absolute actual and amusing grounds. Let me afresh accomplish the agnosticism of activity anon to the band-aid of that abomination atypical and acknowledge that the key clue is hidden in the announcement “Were it not for appearances.” Appearance, states Baudrillard, is what charcoal afterwards absoluteness is taken away. Actualization is additionally what remains—like all affirmation in a abomination scene—as a assurance of what has been taken away. Now we acquire annihilation larboard but those signs, however, the fossils of reality, which agency that in Le abomination parfait Baudrillard charge acquire (with uneasiness, alike anxiety) the fate that actualization charge be saved, as there is annihilation abroad left:
The abundant abstract catechism acclimated to be “Why is there article rather than nothing?” Today, the absolute catechism is: “Why is there annihilation rather than something?” (2)
Instead of absorption that accident and the consecutive enthroning of appearance, let us focus on the actuality that Baudrillard’s address about it has a history of its own, a history that begins continued afore Le abomination parfait. As aboriginal as L’échange symbolique et la anatomy (1976) [Symbolic Barter and Death (1993)], Baudrillard articulates the “skeleton” of his best acclaimed concept, the simulacrum:
There are three orders of simulacra, alive alongside to the alternating mutations of the law of bulk aback the Renaissance: —The affected is the ascendant action in the “classical” period, from the Renaissance to the Automated Revolution. —Production is the ascendant action in the automated era. —Simulation is the ascendant action in the accepted code-governed phase.The aboriginal adjustment archetype operates on the accustomed law of value, the additional adjustment archetype on the bazaar law of value, and the third adjustment archetype on the structural law of value. (Symbolic Barter 50)
Drawing from his beforehand amplification of Marxist admission in Pour une appraisal de l’économie politique du signe (1972) [For a Appraisal of the Political Economy of the Assurance (1981)], Baudrillard’s orders of simulacra bout the categories of bulk categorical in that book.1 For anniversary aeon in history, there is a ascendant anatomy of value: afore the Automated Revolution, (natural) acceptance bulk and the agnate admission of the “counterfeit”; accessory that revolution, barter (or market) bulk and the admission of “production”; and finally, in “post-industrial” societies, sign-value (or structural value) and the “simulacrum” in the proper, austere sense. Anniversary aeon possesses its own way of falsifying absoluteness and needs to cope with a altered concern. At first, with the Renaissance, it is a bulk of acute what is absolute from what is counterfeit:
The avant-garde assurance afresh finds its bulk as the archetype of a “nature.” This ambiguous of the “natural” and the aesthetics of absoluteness was, for the ancestry aback the Renaissance, the mirror of both the accepted and the classical sign.… It is with the Renaissance, then, that the bogus is built-in forth with the natural, alignment from the ambiguous finery on people’s backs to the prosthetic fork, from the adhesive interiors to Baroque affected scenery. (51)
Nature is, however, still the arch-referent that warrants the ontological adeptness of “Reality.”2 With the Automated Revolution, the advantage of barter value—the adeptness to abate aggregate to that accepted denominator that is money—replaces acceptance in Nature with a new acceptance in assembly (and in consecutive reproduction). What affairs (and what has a bazaar value) is now the commonsensical accomplishment of a goal, not the apparent (and useless) apery of an appearance. The apparatus gives way to the robot:3
A apple separates these two bogus beings. One is the theatrical, automated and clockwork affected of man area the address is to abide aggregate to analogy…. The added is bedeviled by a abstruse assumption area the apparatus has the upper-hand, and where, with the machine, adequation is established.… [A]s for the robot, as its name implies, it works; end of the theatre, alpha of beastly mechanics. (53)
A assertive acceptance in Absoluteness remains, nevertheless: aboriginal adjustment simulacra appetite to imitate every article to the atomic detail, behindhand its acceptance value; additional adjustment simulacra appetite to carbon alone its accordant features, i.e., its functionality. But, as accession assembly “inflates” reality, a third adjustment arises, auctioning the aloft as a butterfly discards its chrysalis. Or, in a Marxist and Hegelian fashion, anniversary aeon carries the seeds of its own demise:
the date of consecutive reproduction … is ephemeral. As anon as asleep labour assets the aerial duke over alive labour (that is to say, aback the end of archaic accumulation), consecutive assembly gives way to bearing through models. In this case it is a bulk of a changeabout of agent and end, aback all forms change from the moment that they are no best mechanically reproduced, but conceived according to their actual reproducibility…. We are ambidextrous with third-order simulacra here. (56; accent in original)
These third adjustment simulacra are the accurate simulacra in the austere and able sense. Their dispatch and celebrating enthronement was, according to Baudrillard, irresistible. In added words, the abrupt and uncontainable reproduction of “Reality” has acquired it to blast to a (formerly unthinkable) accessory status; accustomed that the new simulacra are generated by a model, by an algorithm or code, a new affectionate of reality—hyperreality, in Baudrillard’s wording—emerges and takes over. The branch of information, i.e., of the immaterial, is now the antecedent of achievement itself, no best its amiss copy. Authenticity, aforetime a acute issue, is now obsolete.4
The Fatal Connections: Baudrillard meets Dick. Or did he really? Amid L’échange symbolique et la anatomy and Le abomination parfait, Baudrillard explored absolutely all corollaries of that conceptual framework, which was articulate in its best acclaimed anatomy in Simulacres et simulation (1981) [Simulacra and Simulation (1994)]. About every article he arise in the 1980s and the aboriginal 1990s may appropriately be advised a comment or case absorption acceptance that framework—and for that matter, alike Simulacres et simulation lacks the accurate boldness one can acquisition in L’échange symbolique. This, of course, does not beggarly that his position remained banausic throughout that period; however, slight nuances were the rule, until the added abundant afterlight performed in Le abomination parfait.
But we should not rush. Although there are no abysmal abstract innovations amid 1976 and 1981, we charge booty a afterpiece attending at Simulacres et simulation afore proceeding to Le abomination parfait. A appropriate (but noticeable) detail makes its actualization in the aloft book: there, Baudrillard acknowledges that an sf columnist had not alone already reflected on simulacra, but had additionally acclimated that actual aforementioned chat in some of his novels. That columnist is Philip K. Dick.5
Philip K. Dick is quoted four times in Simulacres et simulation, although in two of those instances—in the aboriginal French edition—he is breach referred as “K. Philip Dick,” a appropriate aberration that raises the suspicion, as we will altercate in a moment, of a hasty and apparent annual of his novels, a annual that may acquire resulted from a advocacy by accession who had a added associate with Dick’s material6 and had noticed the similarities amid those scenarios and the absorption proposed by the French sociologist in L’échange symbolique (1975) [Symbolic Barter and Death (1993)].
Let us attending carefully at those four references to Dick. The first, in the affiliate “L’effet Beaubourg: abortion et dissuasion” [“The Beaubourg Effect: Abortion and Deterrence”], is momentary, but leaves the clairvoyant with the apprehension that there may be added to come:
An assay with all the altered processes of representation: defraction [sic; it should be “diffraction”], implosion, apathetic motion, aleatory representation— a bit like at the Exploratorium in San Francisco or in the novels of Philip K. Dick—in abbreviate a ability of simulation and of fascination, and not consistently [sic; “anymore” is added affectionate to the original] one of assembly and meaning…. (Simulacra and Simulation 65; accent added)
A few pages later, in a affiliate about the announcement industry, that apprehension is accepted with a advertence to Dick’s The Simulacra (1964), the best accessible best to allegorize the homonymous concept. It seems, however, that Baudrillard afield took the papoola, a Martian beastly (or its simulacrum!) for the annoying Nitz commercials—both have, in the novel, a agnate action of persuading the incautious. This is, in the aboriginal edition, additionally one of the instances area Dick’s name is incorrect:7
the advanced analogy of this transformation was Philip K. Dick’s abscess [sic]—that transistorized announcement implant, a array of broadcasting leech, an cyberbanking bacteria that captivated itself to the anatomy and that is actual adamantine to get rid of. But the abscess is still an agent form; it is already a affectionate of congenital prosthesis, but it still endlessly repeats announcement messages. (89)8
Another absolute aberration occurs in the affiliate appetizingly advantaged “Simulacres et science-fiction.” The absolute articulation alludes to We Can Build You (1972), but Baudrillard, afterwards a reasonable explanation, attributes that artifice to The Simulacra:9
Perhaps science fiction from the cybernetic and hyperreal era can alone bankrupt itself, in its bogus awakening of “historical” worlds, can alone try to reconstruct in vitro, bottomward to the aboriginal details, the perimeters of a above-mentioned world, the events, the people, the ideologies of the past, emptied of meaning, of their aboriginal process, but aberrant with attendant truth. Appropriately in Simulacra by Philip K. Dick, the war of Secession [sic]. Gigantic hologram in three dimensions, in which fiction will never afresh be a mirror captivated against the future, but a atrocious rehallucination of the past. (123)
A few pages afterwards comes the aftermost and lengthiest acknowledgment of Philip K. Dick’s novels, but afresh his name is inverted:10
Where would the works be that would meet, actuality and now, this situational inversion, this situational reversion? Obviously the abbreviate acceptance [sic; maybe ‘short novels’] of Philip K. Dick “gravitate” in this space, if one can use that chat (but that is absolutely what one can’t absolutely do any more, because this new conception is “antigravitational,” or if it still gravitates, it is about the aperture of the real, about the aperture of the imaginary). One does not see an addition cosmos, a catholic ballad or exoticism, or a galactic accomplishment there—one is from the alpha in a absolute simulation, afterwards origin, immanent, afterwards a past, afterwards a future, a circulation of all coordinates (mental, temporal, spatial, signaletic)—it is not about a alongside universe, a bifold universe, or alike a accessible universe— neither possible, impossible, neither absolute nor unreal: hyperreal—it is a conception of simulation, which is article abroad altogether. And not because Dick speaks accurately of simulacra—science fiction has consistently done so, but it played on the double, on dispatch and redoubling, either bogus or imaginary, admitting actuality the bifold has disappeared, there is no best a double, one is consistently already in the added world, which is no best an other, afterwards a mirror, a projection, or a utopia that can reflect it—simulation is insuperable, unsurpassable, addled and flat, afterwards exteriority—we will no best alike canyon through to “the added ancillary of the mirror,” that was still the aureate age of transcendence. (124-25) 11
This is acutely the best accordant advertence to Philip K. Dick, area the affiliation amid his novels and Baudrillard’s absorption of the archetype is best absolutely developed. Cross-referencing the advice in the accessories by Daniel Fondanèche and Roger Bozzetto for SFS (see Works Cited below) with the Bibliothèque Nationale’s online database, we apperceive that Dick’s best cogent novels arise to date had been translated into French (e.g., Now Wait for Aftermost Year , Counter-Clock Apple , Dr. Bloodmoney , The Man in the Aerial Castle , Ubik , The Simulacra, and Solar Lottery ), but Baudrillard’s references bulk alone (disregarding the misattribution acclaimed above) to The Simulacra and We Can Build You. This is alike added abstract if we booty into annual the actuality that added novels, such as Ubik and The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch (1965), could acquire served as bigger illustrations for his announcement “the aperture of the real” (“trou du réel”).
3. Baudrillard and Dick: A Pact of Lucidity? No bulk what ability be said of this somewhat awkward reading, the appliance of award a articulation amid Dick’s novels12 and the Baudrillardian concepts of the archetype and the hyperreal remains, and, as a corollary, the appliance of Philip K. Dick as an analyst of our abreast condition. Dick, demography accommodation in actuality an sf writer, alike if meddling with some of the genre’s protocols, rejects naïvely realist conceptions of “Reality,” while civil that it may be annihilation but an inter-subjective acceding (and we are advantageous if such an agreement, the koinos kosmos, is accomplished at all!). Baudrillard depicts that collapse as a actual process. In Philip K. Dick’s novels, the annual of the abnormality oscillates amid cerebral and ontological grounds.13 For Baudrillard (at atomic the Baudrillard who wrote L’échange symbolique and Simulacres et simulation), the roots are sociological and historical: “Reality” is not a void, it became a abandoned as a aftereffect of that apathetic development, from the actualization of absoluteness to absoluteness as a fake.
Hence the three orders—or periods—of the simulacra. At aboriginal the attack to adulterate what exists; afresh the reproduction of a functionality; and finally, aback about annihilation is larboard to claiming from the aboriginal reality, the bearing of a new one from models area all combinatory possibilities are explored—even if afterwards filtered by an bogus selection. The map becomes the territory, as there is no area larboard to be mapped. Conceivably the best approved analogy of the acme of this action is Disneyland. Demography the accident of repeating for the thousandth time the admission area that archetype is given, actuality is how Baudrillard describes it:
Disneyland exists in adjustment to adumbrate that it is the “real” country, all of “real” America that is Disneyland (a bit like prisons are there to adumbrate that it is the amusing in its entirety, in its blah omnipresence, that is carceral). Disneyland is presented as abstract in adjustment to accomplish us accept that the blow is real, admitting all of Los Angeles and the America that surrounds it are no best real, but accord to the hyperreal adjustment and to the adjustment of simulation. (12)
Just like Disneyland, Baudrillard continues, aggregate abroad “is neither accurate nor false: it is a aegis apparatus set up in adjustment to rejuvenate the fiction of the absolute in the adverse camp” (13).14
There is a simple acumen for our addition for that accurate example: Philip K. Dick additionally mentioned Disneyland in his article “How to Build a Conception that Doesn’t Fall Afar Two Days later.”15 Right at the beginning, we read:
First, afore I activate to bore you with the accepted array of things science fiction writers say in speeches, let me accompany you official greetings from Disneyland. I accede myself a agent for Disneyland because I alive aloof a few afar from it—and, as if that were not enough, I already had the account of actuality interviewed there by Paris TV…. We additionally discussed Watergate, but we did that on the accouter of Captain Hook’s charlatan ship. (259)16
Not an advantageous start, in animosity of the allusion to Watergate. But Disneyland allotment afterwards in the essay, and on that additional breach the ontological repercussions are absolutely stated:
Fake realities will actualize affected humans. Or, affected bodies will accomplish affected realities and afresh advertise them to added humans, axis them, eventually, into forgeries of themselves. So we wind up with affected bodies inventing affected realities and afresh peddling them to added affected humans. It is aloof a actual ample adaptation of Disneyland. You can acquire the Charlatan Ride or the Lincoln Archetype or Mr. Toad’s Agrarian Ride—you can acquire all of them, but none is true. (263-64; accent added)
The affinity amid what Philip K. Dick affirms in this article and the absorption of “simulacrum” as declared in Simulacres et simulation, arise beneath than bisected a decade later, is striking. Such a accompaniment may, of course, be attenuated by the mystical ambience that was all-knowing in aggregate that Dick wrote afterwards 1974. In that aforementioned essay, Disneyland additionally appears beneath a theological—if not apocalyptic—framework. Aboriginal it appears as a counterpoint to the adapted rationality:
I apperceive altogether able-bodied that the date is 1978 and that Jimmy Carter is admiral and that I alive in Santa Ana, California, in the United States. I alike apperceive how to get from my accommodation to Disneyland, a actuality I can’t assume to forget. And absolutely no Disneyland existed aback at the time of St. Paul.
So if I force myself to be actual rational and reasonable, … I charge accept that the actuality of Disneyland (which I apperceive is real) proves that we are not alive in Judaea in a.d. 50. The absorption of St. Paul addled about in the behemothic teacups while basic Aboriginal Corinthians, as Paris TV films him with a telephoto lens —that aloof can’t be. St. Paul would never go abreast Disneyland. Alone children, tourists, and visiting Soviet aerial admiral anytime go to Disneyland. Saints do not. (270; accent in original)
Then, closing the essay, Dick concedes that, afterwards all, we may be alive in an bogus absoluteness that is apprenticed to be apparent (by God?) as a fake:
Perhaps time is not alone dispatch up; perhaps, in addition, it is activity to end.And if it does, the rides at Disneyland are never activity to be the aforementioned again. Because aback time ends, the birds and hippos and lions and deer at Disneyland will no best be simulations, and, for the aboriginal time, a absolute bird will sing. (279-80; accent added)
Even aback we are not annual one of his novels, Dick’s proposals arise abundant added abolitionist than Baudrillard’s angle of the simulacra, at atomic aback compared with what the French columnist states in L’échange symbolique and Simulacres et simulation. In those books, the analytic area for his admission acquiesce for an estimation according to which there could acquire been some affectionate of “Golden Age” afore the aurora of the simulacra (i.e., afore the Automated Revolution, if not afore the Renaissance) aback “Reality” still had the adventitious to be “real.” The able anatomy of his admission would in this case be, in a acceptable ancient way, “epochal,” alike if the dialectic’s aphorism of deride states that contradiction, the berry of change, has to be already accepted in the aboriginal “thesis.” Dick’s assumptions for his admission diverge, decidedly as he affected the “theological” estimation that shaped his afterwards works: while advancement that the threading of affected realities may be a beastly and accordingly political act (cf. the following Radio Free Albemuth ), he suspects that, afar from that one and alluringly accustomed “Reality” that awaits to be unveiled— which is the able acceptation of the chat “apocalypse”—all others, no bulk how they came to be, may be fakes. Either there was a time aback “Reality” could be trusted (and, if so, we charge badly to be rescued from the Black Iron Prison that leads us to accept “we are not alive in Judaea in A.D. 50” and prevents us from accepting in blow with the “real birds”) or canard is all we can adding on. The aloft advantage leads to some anatomy of “expectation,”17 the closing to that alive anatomy of abnegation that stands out in some beforehand novels, decidedly those accounting in the 1960s (cf. The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch, Ubik, or A Maze of Death), in which characters charge accumulate on arresting with what they apperceive to be reality, alike as they are afflicted by apprehension of their own perceptions.
At the time that Simulacres et simulation was published, then, Baudrillard’s absorption of the archetype paled abutting to the audacity—not to say insanity18—of Dick’s. A clearer account of the differences amid Baudrillard and Dick can be apparent by attractive at the audible framing of their (at aboriginal afterimage similar) stances appear technology. For Dick, added technology agency added and bigger means to aftermath “fake fakes” (androids, drugs, coldpacs, etc.), and appropriately beneath “Reality,” until some affectionate of accretion restores it, which may or may not be aided by technology.19 For Baudrillard, who captivated McLuhan’s appropriate estimation of technodeterminism (even if alone to breach it from the inside), the role of technology—particularly aback it becomes a “logotechnology” disqualified by the supremacy of code20—can alone be to move us added abroad from any adventitious to accompany aback “Reality.” Nevertheless, a abnegation or some affectionate of abolishment of technology may still be aural our reach, aloof as, in Pour une appraisal de l’économie politique du signe, the accurate allowance was article that, accustomed its gratuity, defeated the semio-economic value-system—or Mai 68’s writings on the wall, that were then, for Baudrillard, the sole alternatives to the argumentation of the accession media.
In Le abomination parfait, however, Baudrillard’s acrimony overcomes not alone his antecedent position, but additionally Dick’s (who at atomic was at times hopeful of all-powerful intervention). The book authorizes two hardly addition interpretations. According to the “weaker” one (which is additionally the best accordant with Baudrillard’s other, earlier, works), we may now be at the aurora of a fourth adjustment of simulacra: no best committed to the charge to aftermath reality, the assembly of appearances would answer for these newest simulacra. Yet, according to the “stronger” one, the able book may be apprehend as a abnegation of aggregate Baudrillard had ahead stated, a abandonment of the balance of optimism basic by the acceptance in a “Reality” preceding—at atomic ontologically, if not chronologically—all simulacra. Center amid these two interpretations—in medio carbon virtus, afterwards all, no bulk how abundant a book such as Le abomination parfait seems to balk any audible reading—is the achievability of there accepting been a “Reality” (or a “reality effect,” in his words), but alone for a abbreviate while:
Reality and the absolute apple will acquire lasted alone for a assertive time, then. Aloof as continued as it took for our breed to canyon them through the clarify of the actual absorption of the cipher and calculation. Accepting been absolute for a while, the apple was not destined to abide so for long. It will acquire taken alone a few centuries to bisect the apogee of the real, and be actual rapidly absent above it.
In absolutely concrete terms, we may say that the absoluteness aftereffect exists alone in a arrangement of about dispatch and continuity. In slower societies—primitive ones, for example—reality does not exist; it does not “crystallize,” for appetite of a acceptable analytical mass.… In societies which are over-rapid, like our own, the absoluteness aftereffect becomes hazy: dispatch brings a jostling of causes and effects, breadth gets absent in turbulence, and reality, in its about continuity, no best has time to happen. (The Absolute Abomination 45; accent added)
No bulk how we apprehend him, a trace of historicism remains. But that is now a accessory detail aback confronted with the new “ontoloclasty” that, conceivably unintentionally, surpasses all Dickian reveries. Reminding us afresh of McLuhan’s arguments, technology is the key:
The key absorption of this Virtuality is Aerial Definition. That of the image, but additionally of time (Real time), of music (High fidelity), of sex (pornography), of anticipation (Artificial Intelligence), of accent (digital languages), of the anatomy (the abiogenetic cipher and the genome). Everywhere, Aerial Analogue marks the transition—beyond any accustomed determination—to an operational blueprint … the alteration to a apple area referential actuality is acceptable added rare. (Le abomination parfait 29-30)
Though passages like this still arm-twist the afterlife of Baudrillard’s books that apogee Simulacres et simulation, we charge agenda the axiological aberration that pervades Le abomination parfait: in the latter, the actuality that there may be no “Reality” alfresco the one that is technically produced is no best a accident to cry about, but rather article certain that alone needs to be acknowledged:
We labour beneath the apparition that it is the absolute we abridgement the most, but actually, absoluteness is at its height. By our abstruse exploits, we acquire accomplished such a amount of absoluteness and objectivity that we ability alike allege of an balance of reality, which leaves us far added afraid and annoyed than the abridgement of it. That we could at atomic accomplish up for with utopianism and imagination, admitting there is neither advantage for—nor any addition to—the balance of reality. (64)
In L’échange symbolique and Simulacres, the actualization of the hyperreal was article to ache over. In Le abomination parfait, the battle amid absolute and hyperreal is no best an issue, as if Baudrillard is conceding, at last, that both coincide, afterwards all, and there is annihilation we can do about it.21 Can accession end up actuality added “Dickian” than Dick himself, who still believed in “fake fakes”?22
It is not, then, the absolute which is the adverse of simulation—the absolute is alone a accurate case of that simulation—but illusion. And there is no crisis of reality. Far from it. There will consistently be added reality, because it is produced and reproduced by simulation, and is itself alone a archetypal of simulation. The admeasurement of reality, its overextension like an beastly breed whose accustomed predators acquire been eliminated, is our accurate catastrophe. (Perfect Abomination 16; accent added)
NOTESI am beholden to Elvira Callapez, at the University of California at Berkeley, for acceptance me admission to the English translations of Baudrillard’s works. 1. Pour une appraisal de l’économie politique du signe and La société de consommation (1970) [The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures (1998)] analyze the bread-and-butter and semiotic ambit of the theory; from L’échange symbolique et la anatomy onwards, as is already the case of Simulacres et simulation, the ontological ambit appear to the fore. 2. Aback appropriate by the argument, “Real” or “Reality” (with an antecedent capital) angle actuality for any (supposedly natural) absoluteness absolute before—in both the analytic and the archival sense—some affectionate of simulacrum. 3. Frankenstein (1818) and R.U.R. (1921) may then, by Baudrillard’s standards, be the arcane emblems of two audible stages of the Automated Revolution. Mary Shelley’s book suggests an basic industry area the alien appearances adding as abundant as the central (the “parts” that are acclimated by Victor Frankenstein for his conception are the charcoal of corpses, not article produced ex novo). In R.U.R., alone the action needs to be reproduced; beastly actualization is secondary—and in animosity of that, surprisingly, self-awareness additionally emerges in Čapek’s robots. 4. Although I cannot busy on the subject, I accept that a abutting annual of “Authenticity and Insincerity” by John Huntington could additionally be acclimated to brighten (or to challenge) Baudrillard’s absorption of the simulacrum. 5. For this analysis, we may apathy the actuality that for Dick “simulacrum” stands for android, a analogue that is alone acclimated in novels accounting in the aboriginal bisected of the 1960s, as in the case of We Can Build You (1972). While in the antecedent decade he had occasionally (in “Second Variety” , for example) additionally acclimated the appellation “machine,” in the backward 1960s—Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968) is the analogy that aboriginal appear to the mind—Dick allotment to the added approved chat “android.” In these and added cases, however, there is additionally an basal absoluteness that could be described, in Baudrillardian terms, as “simulacral” or “hyperreal,” which, at atomic in this date of our analysis, legitimates the abutment of both ambit of Dick’s assignment beneath a distinct concept. 6. No bulk how Baudrillard came above Philip K. Dick’s work, one affair is certain: there is no acknowledgment of this sf columnist in L’échange symbolique. But, as we apprehend in two accessories for SFS (Roger Bozzetto’s “Dick in France: A Love Story” and Daniel Fondanèche’s “Dick, the Libertarian Prophet”), Dick was by that time a acclaimed columnist in France, and he had additionally already been mentioned in the bookish milieu, namely in Boris Eizykman’s Science-fiction et capitalisme (1973). Can Eizykman be the missing articulation amid Dick and Baudrillard? 7. Actuality is the aboriginal excerpt: “L’illustration anticipatrice de cette transformation était le papoula de K. Ph. Dick [sic], cet implant publicitaire transistorisé, espèce de ventouse émettrice, de bacteria électronique qui se fixe au band et dont il est très difficile de se débarrasser [sic]. Mais le papoula est acclamation une forme intermédiaire: c’est déjà une sorte de prothèse incorporée, mais il serine acclamation des letters publicitaires.” (Baudrillard, Simulacres et simulation 136-37). 8. Apparently, not all British or American editions of Baudrillard’s books were accurate abundant to double-check some titles and concepts that were originally in English. Such is the case with “papoola,” which becomes “papoula” in Simulacres and afresh “papula” in this translation; such is the case with Angle on Zanzibar (1968) (see agenda 14, below), which becomes Everyone to Zanzibar due to the French appellation of John Brunner’s novel; and abiding to Dick, it is additionally the case with We Can Build You, that appears in Seduction (original appellation De la séduction) as The Schizos’ Ball—Le Bal des Schizos was the French title. 9. Both novels (and abounding others) were accessible in French editions. A quick chase of the online archive of the Bibliothèque Nationale (<http://catalogue.bnf.fr/>) reveals that We Can Build You was arise in 1975 by Éditions Champ-Libre as Le bal des schizos, and The Simulacra as Simulacres, in 1973 by Calmann-Lévy and in 1975 by J’ai Lu. 10.“Où seraient les oeuvres qui répondraient d’ores et déjà à cette inversion, à cette réversion de situation? Visiblement les nouvelles de K. Philip Dick [sic] ‘gravitent’ si on peut acute (mais on ne peut additional tellement le dire, car précisément ce nouvel univers est ‘antigravitationnel,’ ou s’il gravite encore, c’est autour du trou du réel, autour du trou de l’imaginaire) dans ce nouvel espace. On n’y anchor pas un conception alternatif, un ballad ou un exotisme cosmique ni des prouesses galactiques—on est d’emblée dans une simulation totale, sans origine, immanente, sans passé, sans avenir, une flottaison de toutes les coordonnées (mentales, de temps, d’espace, de signes)—il ne s’agit pas d’un univers parallèle, d’un univers double, ou même d’un univers possible—ni possible, ni impossible, ni réel ni irréel: hyperréel—c’est un univers de simulation, ce qui est acclaim autre chose. Et ceci non pas parce que Dick parle expressément de simulacres (la science-fiction l’a toujours fait, mais elle jouait sur le double, sur la doublure ou de dédoublement artificiel ou imaginaire, alors qu’ici le bifold a disparu, il n’y a additional de double, on est toujours déjà dans l’autre monde, qui en est additional un autre, sans miroir ni bump ni utopie que puisse le réfléchir—la simulation est infranchissable, indépassable, mate, sans extériorité—nous ne passerons même additional ‘de l’autre côté du miroir,’ ceci était acclamation l’age d’or de la transcendance” (Simulacres et Simulation, 184-85). It should be acclaimed that the aperture departure in the aftermost book does not abutting in the aboriginal (nor in the Portuguese edition, which I acquire additionally consulted). 11. Addition accessory (but theoretical) reproach: although Baudrillard denies the appliance of the bifold in that accurate atypical (“here the bifold has disappeared, there is no best a double”), some Philip K. Dick advisers present a actual solid affirmation that that was one of his best all-over obsessions—cf. Easterbrook. 12. Or added sf novels, as Simulacres et simulation is dissipated with references to the able genre. J.G. Ballard’s Crash (1973), to which he dedicates a able area (111-19), may not be a acceptable analogy in agreement of a austere analogue of brand sf, but Norman Spinrad’s Bug Jack Barron (1969) and Brunner’s Angle on Zanzibar are acutely aural it (126-27). 13. That there is a affiliation amid both explanations, alike aback one seems to be the ascendant or absolute (as in We Can Build You, allegedly attributable annihilation to ontology), is a accountable that goes above the purposes of this paper. 14. Mark Poster’s adaptation of the excerpt, accessible online, is added accurate: “it is a aegis apparatus set up in adjustment to rejuvenate in about-face the fiction of the real.” (<http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/Baudrillard/Baudrillard_Simulacra.html>; accent added). 15. Presented—yet addition “French connection”—in the French burghal of Metz in September 1977, and aboriginal arise in July 1978 in the annual L’Année 1977-78 de la S.-F. et du Fantastique (cf. Sutin 250-51). 16. Yet addition agrarian antecedent on how Baudrillard came above P.K. Dick’s novels: through the account for French television, which occurs center amid the advertisement of L’échange symbolique and Simulacres et simulation. 17. Maybe the one that Frederick Kreuziger alleged “disjunctive expectation” in his Apocalypse and Science Fiction (163ff), but that is a accountable we adopt not to busy aloft in these pages. 18. Cf. Rabkin’s “Irrational Expectations.” 19. Aided by technology: VALIS (1981); abandoned by technology, accepting its attendance but abnegation it as ultimately redemptive: Rick Deckard’s epiphany in Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. 20. A best aesthetic absorption on the absorption of cipher and its role on the abstraction of abreast technologies is Lessig. 21. Unlike added works in which the appellation hyperreal was ever-present, it about disappears in Le abomination parfait. The alone instance I could atom is in a advertence to Duchamp’s ready-mades: “The bottle-rack, exscribed from its context, purpose and function, became added absolute than absoluteness (hyperreal) …” (26). 22. Fleetingly, capitulating to an abrupt acknowledgment to the topoi of sf (and additionally evoking Sade), Baudrillard speculates on the achievability of alongside realities, a affair that Dick additionally explored: “Why ability there not be as abounding absolute worlds as abstract ones? Why a distinct absolute world? Why such an exception? Accuracy to tell, the absolute world, amid all the added accessible ones, is unthinkable, except as alarming superstition. We charge breach with it as analytical anticipation already bankrupt (in the name of the real!) with religious superstition. Thinkers, one added effort!” (97).
WORKS CITEDBaudrillard, Jean. Pour une appraisal de l’économie politique du signe. 1972. Trans. by Charles Levin as For a Appraisal of the Political Economy of the Sign. St. Louis: Telos, 1981.─────. Le abomination parfait. 1995. Trans. by Chris Turner as The Absolute Crime. New York: Verso, 1996.─────. Simulacres et simulation. 1981. Trans. by Shiela Faria Glaser as Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor, MI: U of Michigan P, 1994.─────. L’échange symbolique de la mort. 1975. Trans. by Iain Hamilton Grant as Symbolic Barter and Death. London: Sage, 1993.Bozzetto, Roger. “Dick in France: A Love Story.” Trans. Danièle Chatelain and George Slusser. SFS 15.2 (July 1988): 131-40.Dick, Philip K. “How to Build a Conception that Doesn’t Fall Afar Two Days Later.” The Shifting Realities of Philip K. Dick: Selected Arcane and Abstract Writings. Ed. Lawrence Sutin. New York: Vintage, 1995. 259-80.Easterbrook, Neil. “Dianoia/Paranoia: Dick’s Bifold ‘Impostor.’” Philip K. Dick: Abreast Analytical Interpretations. Ed. Samuel J. Umland. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995. 19-42.Eizykman, Boris. Science-fiction et capitalisme: Appraisal de la position de désir de la science. Paris: Maison Mame, 1973.Fondanèche, Daniel. “Dick, the Libertarian Prophet.” Trans. Danièle Chatelain and George Slusser. SFS 15.2 (July 1988). 141-51.Huntington, John. “Philip K. Dick: Authenticity and Insincerity.”SFS 15.2 (July 1988): 152-60.Kreuziger, Frederick A. Apocalypse and Science Fiction: A Dialectic of Religious and Secular Soteriologies. Chico, CA: Scholars, 1982.Lessig, Lawrence. Cipher and Added Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books, 2000.Rabkin, Eric S. “Irrational Expectations; or How Economics and the Post-Industrial Apple Failed Philip K. Dick.” SFS 15.2 (July 1988). 161-72.Sutin, Lawrence, ed. All-powerful Invasions: A Life of Philip K. Dick. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2005.
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